Parshwanath, also known as Parshwa (Pārśva), was the 23rd of 24 Tirthankaras (ford-maker, teacher) of Jainism. He is the earliest Jain Tirthankara who is generally acknowledged as a historical figure. His biography is uncertain, with Jain sources placing him between the 9th and 8th century BC, and historians stating he may have lived in 8th or 7th century BC. Along with Mahavira, Rishabhanatha and Neminatha, Parshwanath is one of the four Tirthankaras who attracts the most devotional worship among the Jains. His iconography is notable for the serpent hood over his head, and his worship often includes Dharanendra and Padmavati – the serpent god and goddess of Jainism.